Russia is a democratic federal rule-of-law state with the republican form of government. It consist of republics, territories, regions, federal cities, an autonomous region and autonomous areas - equal subjects of the Russian Federation.
Political and ideological plurality as well as multi-party system are recognized in the Russian Federation.
The Russian Federation is a secular state. No religion may be instituted as state-sponsored or mandatory religion. Religious associations are separated from the state, and shall be equal before the law.
The state language of the Russian Federation throughout its territory is the Russian language. The republics have the right to institute their own state languages which can be used alongside the state language of the Russian Federation in bodies of state power, bodies of local self-government and state institutions of the republics.
The Constitution is the basic law of Russia. It has supreme legal force and direct effect, and is applicable throughout the entire territory of the Russian Federation. Laws and other legal acts adopted by the Russian Federation may not contravene the Constitution of the Russian Federation.
The subjects of the Russian Federation have its own constitution or charter and legislation. Outside of the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and its powers on issues within the joint jurisdiction of Russia and its subjects, the subjects of the Russian Federation exercise the entire spectrum of state power.
The Russian Federation consists of the following subjects of the Federation:
- 22 Republics:
Republic of Adygeya (Adygeya), Republic of Altai, Republic of Bashkortostan, Republic of Buryatia, Republic of Dagestan, Ingush Republic, Kabardin-Balkar Republic, Republic of Kalmykia - Khalmg Tangch, Karachayevo-Cherkess Republic, Republic of Karelia, Republic of Komi, Republic of Crimea, Republic of Mari El, Republic of Mordovia, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Republic of North Ossetia, Republic of Tatarstan (Tatarstan), Republic of Tuva, Udmurt Republic, Republic of Khakasia, Chechen Republic, Chuvash Republic - Chavash Republics.
- 9 Territories:
Altai Territory, Kamchatka Territory, Khabarovsk Territory, Krasnodar Territory, Krasnoyarsk Territory, Perm Territory, Primorsky Territory, Zabaykalsky Territory, Stavropol Territory,
- 46 Regions:
Amur Region, Arkhangelsk Region, Astrakhan Region, Belgorod Region, Bryansk Region, Vladimir Region, Volgograd Region, Vologda Region, Voronezh Region, Ivanovo Region, Irkutsk Region, Kaliningrad Region, Kaluga Region, Kemerovo Region, Kirov Region, Kostroma Region, Kurgan Region, Kursk Region, Leningrad Region, Lipetsk Region, Magadan Region, Moscow Region, Murmansk Region, Nizhny Novgorod Region, Novgorod Region, Novosibirsk Region, Omsk Region, Orenburg Region, Oryol Region, Penza Region, Pskov Region, Rostov Region, Ryazan Region, Samara Region, Saratov Region, Sakhalin Region, Sverdlovsk Region, Smolensk Region, Tambov Region, Tver Region, Tomsk Region, Tula Region, Tyumen Region, Ulyanovsk Region, Chelyabinsk Region, Yaroslavl Region.
- 3 federal cities:
Moscow, Saint-Petersburg, Sevastopol.
- 1 Autonomous Region:
Jewish Autonomous Region.
- 4 Autonomous Areas:
Nenets Autonomous Area, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area, Chukotka Autonomous Area, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area.
State power in the Russian Federation is exercised on the basis of separation of the legislative, executive and judiciary branches. The bodies of legislative, executive and judiciary powers are independent.
The President of the Russian Federation is the head of state which ensures concerted functioning and interaction of all bodies of state power.
The Federal Assembly - Parliament of the Russian Federation - is the supreme representative and legislative body of the Russian Federation.
Executive power in the Russian Federation is exercised by the Government of the Russian Federation.
Justice in the Russian Federation is administered by law courts.
PRESIDENT OF RUSSIA
The President of the Russian Federation is the guarantor of the Constitution, of human and civil rights and freedoms. He defines the basic domestic and foreign policy guidelines of the state and as the head of state represents the Russian Federation inside the country and in international relations.
The President of Russia shall be elected for a term of four years on the basis of general, equal and direct vote by secret ballot. A citizen of Russia not younger than 35, who has resided in the Russian Federation for not less than 10 years, may be elected President of the Russian Federation.
The main powers of the President of the Russian Federation are:
- appointment of the Chairman, Deputy Chairmen and other members of the Federal Government subject to consent of the State Duma and taking decision on its resignation;
- submission to the Federation Council candidates for appointment to the office of judges of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation as well as the candidate for Prosecutor- General of the Russian Federation, submission to the Federation Council the proposal on relieving the Prosecutor-General of the Russian Federation of his duties;
- appointment of the judges of other federal courts;
- appointment of and dismissal plenipotentiary representatives of the President Russian Federation;
- formation and leadership of the Security Council of the Russian Federation;
- endorsement of the military doctrine of the country;
- appointment and dismissal of the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation as a their Supreme Commander-in-Chief;
- introduction of draft laws in the State Duma;
- signing and publishing of federal laws;
- resolution issues of citizenship of the Russian Federation and of granting political asylum;
- granting pardon.
THE FEDERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
The Federal Assembly - Parliament of the Russian Federation is the supreme representative and legislative body of the Russian Federation. The Federal Assembly consists of two chambers -- the Federation Council and the State Duma. The Federation Council and the State Duma sit separately.
Draft federal laws are first introduced in the State Duma. Federal laws adopted by the State Duma are to be passed to the Federation Council for review. After a federal law is approved by the Federation Council it is considered finally adopted.
THE FEDERATION COUNCIL
Two deputies from each subject of the Federation become members of the Federation Council - one from the representative and one from the executive bodies of state authority.
The jurisdiction of the Federation Council includes:
- approval of changes of borders between the subjects of the Russian Federation;
- approval of decrees of the President of the Russian Federation on the introduction of martial law;
- approval of the decree of the President of the Russian Federation on the introduction of a state of emergency;
- making decisions on the possibility of the use of the Russian Armed Forces outside the territory of the Russian Federation;
- calling of elections of the President of the Russian Federation;
- impeachment of the President of the Russian Federation;
- appointment of judges of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, and the Supreme Court of Arbitration of the Russian Federation;
- appointment to and removal from office of the Prosecutor-General of the Russian Federation;
THE STATE DUMA
The State Duma consists of 450 deputies. Deputies to the State Duma are elected from various political parties, public movements or as independent candidates for a term of four years.
The jurisdiction of the State Duma includes:
- granting consent to the President of Russian Federation for the appointment of the Chairman of the Government of the country;
- decisions on confidence in the Government of the Russian Federation;
- the appointment and dismissal of the Chairman of the Central Bank;
- the appointment and dismissal of the Plenipotentiary for Human Rights;
- granting amnesty;
- bringing charges against the President of the Russian Federation for his impeachment.
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
The Government of the Russian Federation heads the single system of executive power in the country formed by federal bodies of executive power and bodies of executive power of the subjects of the Russian Federation.
The Government of the Russian Federation consists of the Chairman of the Government, Deputy Chairmen of the Government and federal ministers.
The Government of the Russian Federation:
- develops and submits the federal budget to the State Duma and a report on its execution;
- ensures the implementation of a uniform financial, credit and monetary policy as well as of a uniform state policy in the field of culture, science, education, health, social security and ecology;
- manages federal property;
- adopts measures to ensure the country's defense, state security and the implementation of the foreign policy of the Russian Federation;
- implements measures to ensure legality, the rights and freedoms of citizens, protect property and public law and order and control crime, etc.